The best angle is 45, as close to stall at that angle as you dare.Some comments.
A turn to runway 30 seems obvious, but if there was a significant crosswind component from the right, a turn into the crosswind would have been a good decision.
His turn was at a bank of approximately 30 degrees. The most effective return to the runway turn will be closer to a 60 degree bank for most airplanes.
Simply getting turned back is only half of the challenge; getting slowed down before the end of the runway can be difficult.
If one is gong to turn back, one needs to have practiced the turn under the conditions that will exist when having to do it for real. Airplane weight and temperature are big factors. Know the minimum altitude/airspeed from which you will make the turn. The direction of turn should be planned before takeoff. Consider your passengers. If you make a turn from minimal altitude, at a 60 degree bank, you will frighten the passenger. Do you know what the passenger will do? Screaming is OK, grabbing the controls or the pilot is bad.
Not many pilots have seen the ground at less than 200 feet altitude in a 60 degree bank with the nose way down. Be aware that things look different when maneuvering down low. Again, practice under controlled conditions is the route to success.
No, I am not recommending that you try it.
That is a good one. Another one, of all the instructors I have had, and I have had a lot of them, only one gave me the best advice ever: "If in doubt, Don't". Go with your first thought, do something else. This will help with the "go home itis" problem.I know this is an old thread but it brings back with my cfi told me when practicing emergencies. The moment the engine quits the insurance company now owns the plane, worry about yourself.
The 60 degree bank that I use also includes significant nose down attitude. It is useful when departing on runway heading. Where it is acceptable, I turn about 15 degrees downwind just after liftoff.Although a very steep bank angle substantially reduces turn radius and keeps the airplane closer to the runway, the associated rise in stall speed is unacceptable.
A shallow bank angle takes longer to make the turn and you lose more altitude than you will with a steeper angle. Go out and take some measurements of the altitude lost in a 360 degree turn at different bank angles, and do it for a near 60 degree angle also. Very hard to hold a constant speed at near 60 degrees. You will find that you are gaining speed and therefore will not stall.Technique: Unconventional Wisdom
"For starters, what bank angle should be used? Safety suggests a shallow bank angle. The problem is that a shallow, large-radius turn displaces the airplane so far from the extended runway centerline that a return to the runway becomes less likely. Although a very steep bank angle substantially reduces turn radius and keeps the airplane closer to the runway, the associated rise in stall speed is unacceptable.
The optimum bank angle appears to be a compromise, 45 degrees. This prevents excessive lateral displacement from the extended runway centerline and results in only a 19-percent increase in stall speed (from 55 to 65 knots, for example)."
I have done it a 60. Lost less altitude than I did at 45 degrees. You will not stall. You should be nowhere near stall speed. Best glide speed + and at 60 degrees you will be gaining speed due to the amount of back pressure required trying to maintain your chosen airspeed. This is with gliders and my RV6.What airplane, and how many have you done in practice at 60 degrees?
I think one problem historically is that people are using anecdotal experience to attempt to answer what are in many cases mathematical or at least empirically verifiable questions, e.g. what is the best turn roll angle for trying to get back.What airplane, and how many have you done in practice at 60 degrees?
My comments, and experience, are wrt VFR flight.The experimental research was conducted in a fully instrumented modified GAT-IVS simulator configured to correspond to a light (1600 lb) fixed gear, fixed pitch GA trainer. The simulator has motion but does not have a visual display. The only visual clues available to the pilot were a horizontal line and the letters N,S,E, and W for North, South, East, and West painted on the room walls. Thus, the flights were `essentially' performed on `instruments'. This also accounts for the somewhat arbitrary, but practical and reasonable, criteria for a safe landing. These were defined as: maximum decent rate less than 2500 fpm, rate of decent at touchdown less than 500 fpm, wings level +-5 degrees below 100 feet altitude, turn of at least 175 degrees completed above 100 feet altitude and maximum bank angle less than 55 degrees. The tests were performed in the no wind condition.
Yup, those are killers.the overwhelming temptations to hold the nose up to stretch the glide, and to skid that turn to tighten the radius, and you have the classic killer stall-spin crash.
I think that is key. The wing won't stall unless the critical AoA is exceeded, and "unloading" helps prevent that (as a bonus, the roll to 60 degrees can be appreciably faster with less "g" ). But practice at altitude would be important to safely master the maneuver, and then practice nearer the ground would likely be important to help a person get used to the sight picture ("The windshield view will be full of trees or dirt, with no horizon for reference") so they gain confidence and will be able to grit their teeth and follow through with the plan.Keep in mind that there is no attempt to maintain altitude in the 60 degree banked turn; to the contrary, the nose will be way down.