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Regulations - Aircraft Certification

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Will Aldridge

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The purpose of this thread is to provide quick access to the regulations regarding aircraft certification. In the U.S. FAR 23 has a considerable amount of data regarding the loads and limitations that aircraft should be designed around. For designers this is an invaluable resource. If you are thinking about designing your own plane I can guarantee you that the more experienced members of this forum will sooner or later tell you to look up FAR 23.

In keeping with the international nature of this forum I will also list links to other countries regs as they are made available to me. If you post a link and don't see this top post modified to include your link please pm me. I do have a life so it might take a day or 2. Once links have been added posts will be deleted to keep things uncluttered.

Thanks to Jake for making this a sticky and for giving us this great site.

United States: FAA Regs

All FAR's

Regulatory and Guidance Library

Experimental Amateur Built

FAR 23 Certification Specifications

Ultralight Regs

Part 103

AC103-7 Determining if part 103 compliant

Miscellaneous

AC 90-89A - "Amateur-Built Aircraft and Ultralight Flight Testing Handbook"

Road regulations

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Regulations
Vehicle Standards and Regulations | Cars and Light Trucks | US EPA
http://www.dieselnet.com/standards/us/ld_ca.php#leviii

Europe
EASA- Certification Specifications
EASA-General Aviation FAQ

  • CS-23, VSo below 61 kts, IFR possible, max 19 people on board
  • CS-22, VS0 80 km/h without and 90 km/h with water ballast, 750 kg MTOW, 850 for double seaters and engine*
  • CS-VLA, VSo below 45 kts, VFR only, max 2 people on board, MTOW 750 kg, normal category only *
  • CS-LSA, copy of the FAR-LSA regulations. Read more
  • MLA, regulated per country, VSo below 35 kts, 450 kg MTOW with 2 pob, 300 kg when single seat. 25 kg extra MTOW with a BRS.
*Proposed changes are a raise of the MTOW of gliders to 900 kg and the approval of CS-VLA for night-VFR and a raise of the latter to a MTOW of 890 kg. Relaxation in certifying/allowing aircraft below 1200 KG is expected (ELA1 process)

Czech Republic

Czech ultralight airplane requirements UL2-1: http://www.laacr.cz/formular_downloa...FORMULAR_ID=12 (non English site)

Germany


German ultralight a/c requirements LTF-UL: http://www.pilots24.com/pilots24/dow...F-UL202003.pdf (non English site)

United Kingdom

Experimental Amateur Built

http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP659.PDF

HAB thread on topic: Where to start?

Microlight a/c (450 kg) requirements BCAR-S:

http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP482.PDF

Some additional info: BCAR-S interpretation: http://www.bmaa.org/files/til016_1_i..._of_bcar_s.pdf

BCAR-S and LTF-UL bridging: http://www.bmaa.org/files/til037_2_s..._vs_ltf-ul.pdf
 
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autoreply

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http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP659.PDF
and
https://www.homebuiltairplanes.com/forums/general-experimental-aviation-questions/9208-where-start.html#post88705

Both for the UK-section


Regarding the Netherlands:
wetten.nl - Wet- en regelgeving - BWBR0013494
CS-23 is limited to a power loading of 267 HP/tonne or less, whether that's @ MTOW or Minimum operating weight isn't specified.

A small clarification of the different categories might be interesting. CS/FAA-VLA for example isn't that well known and neither are the microlight (below 1000 lbs) EU regulations.
 

Topaz

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Might be a good idea to include Part 103 and AC103-7 as specific links in the US section, as they're asked about so frequently. Not strictly "certification", of course, but useful nonetheless, and also consistent since we're doing European microlight regs.

And although it doesn't strictly belong in this area either, I'd love to find a home on the forums for AC 90-89A - "Amateur-Built Aircraft and Ultralight Flight Testing Handbook".
 

addaon

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Probably also worth pulling out a link to the Part 23 simplified analysis appendix, with an explanation of what it is. I'd also include a Part 25 link for completeness, with a paragraph of when each applies... because I find that people sometimes refer to Part 25 here without realizing that they should be looking at Part 23 instead.
 

autoreply

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Probably also worth pulling out a link to the Part 23 simplified analysis appendix, with an explanation of what it is. I'd also include a Part 25 link for completeness, with a paragraph of when each applies... because I find that people sometimes refer to Part 25 here without realizing that they should be looking at Part 23 instead.
I was actually thinking of something like this:

======================================================================

Europe
EASA- Certification Specifications
EASA-General Aviation FAQ

  • CS-23, VSo below 61 kts, IFR possible, max 19 people on board
  • CS-22, VS0 80 km/h without and 90 km/h with water ballast, 750 kg MTOW, 850 for double seaters and engine*
  • CS-VLA, VSo below 45 kts, VFR only, max 2 people on board, MTOW 750 kg, normal category only *
  • CS-LSA, copy of the FAR-LSA regulations. Read more
  • MLA, regulated per country, VSo below 35 kts, 450 kg MTOW with 2 pob, 300 kg when single seat. 25 kg extra MTOW with a BRS.
*Proposed changes are a raise of the MTOW of gliders to 900 kg and the approval of CS-VLA for night-VFR and a raise of the latter to a MTOW of 890 kg. Relaxation in certifying/allowing aircraft below 1200 KG is expected (ELA1 process)

======================================================================
But then for all categories, particularly because there's quite large international differences. Several countries have a 115 kg "ultralight" class, while the ultralights in Europe for example are vastly different and many countries have special categories.
 
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Will Aldridge

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Okay I finally got around to updating this.

Autoreply I just pasted your revisions in, however the links don't seem to work although it looks to me like it might be the server at the other end or I my really slow connection might be the problem.

Addaon, could you please right up how you would like your suggestion to look.

Any other comments appreciated. I hope we are not getting too of topic here with some of the things I have included.
 

Aircar

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If somebody could post the relevant road vehicle regulations for each country or state (or Europe wide if that is now the case) it would also help with roadable designs -- on the roadable thread would be the appropriate one --in Australia they are called ADR's Australian Design Requirements and are added on to the country of origin design standards. I am only aware of two kit aircraft ever certified to meet FAR 23 ("designed to FAR 23" is a fairly meaningless claim made for some homebuilts but without showing compliance is unreliable at best ) --the Chana et al Honey Bee and the Schweizer 1-26 (with possibly the Helisoar HP 10 as another ) although it was the only option for local(Australian) homebuilt aircraft design until 1999 (with ultralights exempted alone in 1976)

Overkill in both types of certification is surely shown by the established service histories of so many uncertified vehicles (air and ground)
 

Holden

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If somebody could post the relevant road vehicle regulations for each country or state (or Europe wide if that is now the case) it would also help with roadable designs -- on the roadable thread would be the appropriate one --in Australia they are called ADR's Australian Design Requirements and are added on to the country of origin design standards. I am only aware of two kit aircraft ever certified to meet FAR 23 ("designed to FAR 23" is a fairly meaningless claim made for some homebuilts but without showing compliance is unreliable at best ) --the Chana et al Honey Bee and the Schweizer 1-26 (with possibly the Helisoar HP 10 as another ) although it was the only option for local(Australian) homebuilt aircraft design until 1999 (with ultralights exempted alone in 1976)

Overkill in both types of certification is surely shown by the established service histories of so many uncertified vehicles (air and ground)
Road vehicle regulations depend on whether it is motorcycle ( 3 or less wheels) or car (4 wheels).

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Regulations
Vehicle Standards and Regulations | Cars and Light Trucks | US EPA
http://www.dieselnet.com/standards/us/ld_ca.php#leviii

Some counties within States do not require smog testing.

Note that a steering wheel is required if 4 wheels. There needs to be new regulations made that directly deal with roadables. The crash requirements are not right due to weight differences. Using a steering wheel is not something I want in my car or airplane, but if it has 4 wheels it must have the round thing right where it kills people.

Holden
 

Aircar

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Good work Holden.. It is surprising that ground vehicle regulations are not more standardized in the US --the situation in the EU might be even less on commonality (and the LHS vs RHS driving thing adds more problems except for motorcycles --one more possible reason for a central driver position.
 

Will Aldridge

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I would have updated the op to reflect the US DOT stuff but we are nolonger allowed to edit our posts. Mods if you please.
 

bmcj

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There needs to be new regulations made that directly deal with roadables. The crash requirements are not right due to weight differences. Using a steering wheel is not something I want in my car or airplane, but if it has 4 wheels it must have the round thing right where it kills people.

Holden
Why? How many light aircraft do you know of that have 4 wheels? Why redesign the plane when you can make a perfectly stable and controllable 3-wheeler that need only conform to the much less restrictive motorcycle rules? If you ask for new rules, you might not like what you get.

BTW... I vote for two steerable wheels up front and one fixed at the rear.

Bruce :)
 

Dana

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Why? How many light aircraft do you know of that have 4 wheels? Why redesign the plane when you can make a perfectly stable and controllable 3-wheeler that need only conform to the much less restrictive motorcycle rules? If you ask for new rules, you might not like what you get.

BTW... I vote for two steerable wheels up front and one fixed at the rear.

Bruce :)
If it's registered as a motorcycle, you need a motorcycle license to drive it.

Dana

Earthlings: Send more probes. The last one was delicious!
 

bmcj

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Even the "etc" is more complex for a production motorcycle than you might think, at least at the federal level. The EPA will have a few things to add as well.

eCFR — Code of Federal Regulations
I wonder, are these regulations for all motorcycles or just for commercially manufactured motorcycles? Are the regs different for a hobbyist-built motorcycle (or car)?
 

Dana

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Depends on the state, each state has different rules.

Road vehicles are subject to regulations that change each year. Using an older [I think] engine in a homebuilt car (or motorcycle) can make it fall under earlier (i.e. less restrictive) regulations.

Dana

Timing has a lot to do with the outcome of a rain dance.
 
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