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Prosthetic Wings

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bmcj

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That group only allows uploading images from the internet and not from my computer so I'll put this cartoon here for now.
If yours is like mine, the SELECT FILES button on the "From Computer" tab no longer works. I have to use the "Basic Uploader" link (on the same tab) to upload my PC-bound photos. Give it a try.
 

WonderousMountain

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Screenshot 2015-09-22 at 13.26.27.png

Yeah, that's pretty much it. Span shown 27 ft. Sections 30-48-72 inches. That's where the planes are offset for the sketch. 5-8-12 ratio, with 36 inch root chord.

I also like the 2 joint fold Starman. I tend to start with some organic ideal, instead of buildup from shapes etc. Many "reverse" processes going on in my head.
 

Starman

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Are you going for wing joints that fold up and down or forward and back? That one looks like up and down. I prefer two hinges myself instead of three. Here's a refinement of the hard wing idea. There are three joints but the inner two are for folding the wings and the outer ones are only to provide roll and lift control, so the big joints remain locked during flight but the 'finger tip' part of the wing swings with pilot arm movement.

The middle drawing shows the left wing fully folded and the right wing partly folded.
 

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WonderousMountain

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The wings are primarily fore and aft pivots, but I wanted some positive roll stability.

If we're only pivoting one joint, then having two joints are much better.

It's easier to draw a solid wing, maybe it was not a good representation.

Feathers take a dozen operations to place.
 

WonderousMountain

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I've been considering tube and fabric feathers. To simplify and possibly keep light the prototype.

They would stay parallel to the crafts body, regardless of wing fold angle.

Maybe they could be measure for spring under airspeed.

LuPi
 

WonderousMountain

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My projects don't seem to generate much organized effort, but all the same,

If you look at my signature (below post) you'll see I've a proswings.blogspot their groups work pretty well afaik

LuPi
 

mcrae0104

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Otto WM is still with us, so there probably hasn't been much done with the project.
 

WonderousMountain

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REVAN -
Any update on this activity?
Frigate Bird (AC) is out of action.
Peter J. Dodd Eng. [Rumoured] Dead.
Gerry Breen may be in retirement.

Mcrea - WM is still with us.

True on both accounts, however,
It is still an active project seeking
Talent & Passionate doers.

Makaya - Close enough?

Not even close, but we plan on jet
jet type propulsion & pilot underwing.

Currently, training for agility & toughness.
As flight will depend on direct mimicry.
 

DennisK

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I am 6'1", 150lbs, fast, and smart enough not to jump off a roof. Just about perfect for testing such devices :)

I never saw this thread before, but it is relevant to my interests. I'm going for fully robotic back-mounted bird wings, since the human shoulder joint forward/back range is about 90 degrees offset from birds. Bird range is about -90 degrees (elbows touching behind their back) to +45 degrees (their huge pectoral muscles get in the way after that), whereas humans are about 0 degrees to +135 degrees. We can't really get our arms backward at all due to shoulder blades running together, but can cross in front by a long way. So our range only overlaps with about 1/3 of what would be necessary for proper arm wings.

My design uses carbon fiber/fiberglass feathers strung together with an elaborate network of elastic and thread. The motion system is a 3-axis shoulder, plus a linear actuator for elbow extension. Elbow, wrist, and finger joints are mechanically linked. It would be possible to add a separate wing finger actuator for finer control like Stanford's PigeonBot, but would increase the wing's inertia for flapping. Control will be via sensor gloves, perhaps with some haptic feedback as well. Flap your wrists to flap the wings, wrist twist controls wing humerus twist, elbow controls wing sweep motion, and finger extension controls wing extension.

Hopefully I can get by without a tail, because I'm not sure how you could control it while using your legs as landing gear. Wingsuit webbing between legs would be helpful to support them during flight and give a bit of tail-like control, but may result in falling on face when trying to run fast.

The biggest challenge is designing actuators with the necessary torque to weight ratio. I've been mainly focused on the flapping motion, which I think can be done using a brushless outrunner and highly integrated cycloidal reducer. But it recently occurred to me that the wing sweep motion is more of an issue than I thought, due to the fact that much of the thrust force is generated at the hand wing, meaning it has a very long moment arm. Checking how birds deal with it, the pectoral muscle fibers are oriented at about 45 degrees so the downstroke simultaneously pulls the wing forward. A brilliant solution since the high thrust moment is only generated during downstroke, so there's no need for high wing sweep power at other times. But my current design won't allow for tilting the flap actuator by 45 degrees, so for the moment I'll be sticking with probably-too-weak sweep motion. I'll be using a propeller for thrust on my goose-size model anyway. It will be hard enough learning to control it without simultaneously trying to flap for thrust.
 

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DennisK

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Indeed, plan B if the flight research doesn't pan out is to make my living building costume wings. Heck, the full size feathers alone are probably a marketable product. Aside from looking awesome, they're the most effective manual fan that I know of. Just swing it up and down and it makes a great deal of wind. They would be expensive to ship individually though, due to needing a giant box.
 

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autoreply

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I looked into it quite a bit. Biggest challenge I saw (except for the control&stability of flapping flight) was getting the power density of actuators high enough with acceptable weight. Electric is probably out, perhaps pneumatic?
 

Aesquire

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The motion required for flapping flight with a prone humanoid is much like the butterfly swimming arm motion, & the dolphin kick is close for pitch control.

I'd suggest skipping bird like landing & take off. Birds don't use their legs for pitch control.

Humans are woefully underpowered, so a man amplification system for flapping is needed. Unaided, the wing goes to max dihedral & sweep limits.

Heinlein described the method, and current DARPA projects for exoskeleton walking has the control systems under development.

Sure, it's hard, but current aircraft controls evolved with input from other vehicles. The Weight 1903 glider used 2 fore & aft only control sticks, right hand elevator ( pitch ), left hand rudder (yaw), & hips wing warp ( roll ). I've flown that in a replica, & don't recommend it for anything else.

So? Arms forward ( up to a standing human ) up & down ( fore & aft standing ) upper arm rotation/elbow bend, & wrist rotation. That's what you've got to work with in an "arms in wings mimic a bird" setup. Carefully consider the muscles used, & experiment with exercise equipment at a good gym to determine the choices.
 

DennisK

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I looked into it quite a bit. Biggest challenge I saw (except for the control&stability of flapping flight) was getting the power density of actuators high enough with acceptable weight. Electric is probably out, perhaps pneumatic?
Hydraulic is probably better than pneumatic. Here's a video showing some McKibben muscles using hydraulic fluid, which produce potentially sufficient force
Pneumatic has the advantage of being compliant (safer if you bump into things), but that also makes it very difficult to position precisely. Either way you'll pretty much have to develop an ultra-light gas powered pump, because compressed air has pitiful specific energy, and a battery powered pump would probably result in higher overall weight than direct electric actuators.

Sharing this link that might interest fellowing enthusiasts.
Yeah, those kind of springy stilts are definitely something to consider. I'd rather avoid using them due to the increased pain when falling on your face, but it would give more ground clearance for both flapping and walking. My current ideal design requires shortening the humerus and elongating the ulna to get the wing wrist up to head height when folded, which is the only other way I can think of to get sufficiently large wingspan while allowing the wings to be oriented vertically when folded so you can navigate indoor spaces. For starters I'll probably forget about indoor navigation and focus just on flying and safety, with proper wing proportions and no stilts (walk around leaned forward with wingtips out behind, or with wings not fully folded). If that works, then see if I can get the ideal form to work.
 

Aesquire

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Considering my hang gliders tend to be 20-24 feet long by 1.5 foot diameter when folded & bagged, indoor navigation is more fantasy than actual flight. Broken down for shipping, 12 feet. I figure an hour for reassembling, vs. Under 20 minutes from full length transport mode. ( including preflight )

if redesigned for manual quick folding to 7 feet, the hinges and tensioning mechanism would probably add 10% to the weight. So from 70 to 84 pounds.

That's with a wing area of aprox. 180 sq. ft. / 17 sq. Meters. I'm a big guy and like a sink rate that lets me soar in the lift challenged hilly North East U.S.A. My old tandem glider, now gone, had 240 sq. ft. / 22 sq. Meters. I've also flown gliders up to 32 sq. Meters. ( flies at a fast walk ) That's flex wings with alloy rigid frames, and fabric paragliders over 23 sq. Meters, which fit in a backpack.

The 32 sq. Meter hang glider is named the BFG. Biggest Flying Glider. Technically incorrect, Messerschmitt Me 321 had 300 sq.Meters of wing area.

I assume you're going a bit smaller.
 

DennisK

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Yeah, flapping wings should allow for higher wing loading than gliders since you don't need super high glide ratio and have higher effective airspeed over the wings to enable slower takeoff/landing speed. Bird wings fold up to around 26-33% of the wingspan. Indoor navigation isn't really a priority objective, but outdoor walking is. And if it's light enough to walk with, then there's a decent chance indoor navigation will be possible anyway.
 
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