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Rutan's space ships have fixed wings but tail surfaces that can be rotated almost 90 degrees up, aligning wings almost 90 degrees off the relative wind. This creates so much aerodynamic drag that the wings are stalled and it can never descend fast enough to overheat.
One Skylab escape system proposal used a big balloon, with such a high drag to weight ratio that it would not heat up too much. Keep in mind you hit the upper atmosphere at more or less Mach 24. ( after reentry rocket burn ) IIRC it was heavier than the "plastic bag you fill with foam" alternative, so they never did a full scale test from orbit. Then they never did a full scale test on the Bag o Foam. Then they never did a full scale test on the Escape Capsule... Or used any of them. Just park an old school manned meteorite Soyuz capsule on Stations.
The craft was meant not as a “space taxi” to get crews to and from the ISS, but rather was simply meant as a lifeboat to get folks back to earth. It was small enough to have fit into the payload bay of the shuttle and would have been semi-permanently docked to the ISS