2024 t3 bend it how ?

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David Martin

Active Member
Joined
Jun 6, 2003
Messages
36
Location
S.W. Fl.
I'm trying to bend aluminum (2024 t3) like the prints call for and keep breaking or cracking the tubes! the easiest one i have tried is just flattenig tha last inch of tube for drilling a bolt hole but the edges keep cracking. the tube is ony 1/2 inch, I also need to bend a piece at the end appox. 35 to 40 degrees but they kep breaking at the bend? anyone know how I can bend this stuff without breaking or cracking it?? I have tried a heat gun,(not hot enough), and a torch( that was neet as the al. went from stiff to foil in a split secnd),
 

Dakota435

Member
Joined
Feb 25, 2006
Messages
15
I'm trying to bend aluminum (2024 t3) like the prints call for and keep breaking or cracking the tubes! the easiest one i have tried is just flattenig tha last inch of tube for drilling a bolt hole but the edges keep cracking. the tube is ony 1/2 inch, I also need to bend a piece at the end appox. 35 to 40 degrees but they kep breaking at the bend? anyone know how I can bend this stuff without breaking or cracking it?? I have tried a heat gun,(not hot enough), and a torch( that was neet as the al. went from stiff to foil in a split secnd),
DO NOT use heat to bend 2024 T3. Heat is never used to bend heat treated aluminum. The heat treat state is critical and and strength goes to hell if you heat it beyond a critical temperature. You need to get a tube bender from McMaster Carr or someplace, or take it to a shop that bends hydraulic tubes.

For the flattened end, don't try to squeeze both surfaces together. You can only squeeze them together until the edges get to the minimum bend radius for that material. Determine what the minimum bend radius is for that thickness of 2024 T3 and make a plate insert of the appropriate thickness, that will form the core of a sandwich as you squeeze it together. When you have it flattened down so it will grip the plate, JB weld (epoxy) the plate in position and after curing drill the hole. The plate is just to keep the installation bolt from crushing the tube.

The squeezing die you make to flatten the tube should have a nice gentle slope and curvature where it forms the transition from flat to round.

Another option is to buy annealed 2024 O tube and have it heat treated after forming. Expensive.

It's odd to be doing that kind of stuff with 2024. Usually one would use 6061 T6 or 5052 which is a little easier to form.
 

base363

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Joined
Nov 5, 2006
Messages
81
Many times there are user groups (Yahoo or Google) that cater to a particular aircraft design, and the associated processes in construction.

Can I ask what type of aircraft your building? Have you tried asking the factory?

Colin
http://www.jumprunenterprises.com

 

Captain_John

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Joined
Feb 3, 2003
Messages
699
Location
KPYM
I think I have your answer.

What I would do is fill the tubes with sand first. This will distribute the pressure evenly and resist kinking.

Let me know how it works out!

;) CJ
 

David Martin

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Jun 6, 2003
Messages
36
Location
S.W. Fl.
The plane is a whing ding by hovey that I acquired back in 1972. The plans acually call for T4 but For some reason I m using t3 This is actualy practice building in case dad doesn't get to finish his osprey and it gets passed on to me It seems like a good idea to start my skill honing on something odd.
 

Craig

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Jan 30, 2003
Messages
543
Location
Jupiter, Florida
David, 2024 is NOT a heatable alloy. Many other kinds are, or can be annealed easily without going from "stiff to foil" in a second.

Use an oxy-acetylene torch, and start out with only acetylene. Put a thin layer of soot on the piece. Now, add the oxygen until you get a soft flame. You want the inner cone to be long - 2-3" is fine.

Now you can GENTLY heat it with the torch - start a bit far out, and just gently heat the piece until you are burning the soot off. Start near one end, and work your way to the other, Do not start directly at the end.

When all the soot is burned off, the piece will be malleable, then will work/age harden.

Do NOT try this on any 2024, however - 6061, etc. works well this way.

There are substances that you can put inside the tube to help avoid cracking, such as the sand that Captain John suggested. Another is low-melt filler, such as jewellers use - most melt about 150- 160 deg. Heat it in boiling water, pour it in, let it sit, then try bending. Use large radii.

Wish you a lot of luck with this!
 

simkatu

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Jun 15, 2014
Messages
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Location
Wichita, KS
The solution heat treat process of 2024-O aluminum is to heat to 920 degF +/- 20 deg before a cold water quench.

After the quench, if you can keep it in a deep freeze, it will still remain comparatively soft for a couple of days. This is called 2024 condition W.

Once warmed or left at room temperature, it will be hard in a few of hours. This condition is called 2024 T42 aluminum. It will not quite have the physical properties of 2024 T3 but it is very close. Nearly the same allowables for static stress and fatigue.

If you don't have any 2024-O starting material. You can also do the same thing with 2024-T3. Heat it up to 920 degF before quenching and the condition will revert back to 2024-W and it will age harden back into 2024-T42.


 

kent Ashton

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Aug 15, 2008
Messages
805
Location
Concord, NC
The plane is a whing ding by hovey that I acquired back in 1972. The plans acually call for T4 but For some reason I m using t3 This is actualy practice building in case dad doesn't get to finish his osprey and it gets passed on to me It seems like a good idea to start my skill honing on something odd.
Welcome to homebuilding. Learning about alloys is one of the pleasures of acquiring the skill. 2024-T3/T4/T0, 3003, 6061, 4130, 303. Become conversant about different alloys and how they react to machining and welding. Most competent homebuilders know their alloys--what will bend, how much it can bend. Then there is fiberglass . . . :)

There are lots of good reference books on the subject. Try those by the late Tony Bingelis
Homebuilt Aircraft from Aircraft Spruce
 

Ryan Cao

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Joined
Feb 27, 2022
Messages
3
Location
Xiamen, China
We need to do "annealing" on the material first. It can increase ductility and make it more workable. When the material reaches its workable state, we need to use bending tooling to bend it. Finally, we will do "tempering" to the parts. Our company, RpProto, has capability to fabricate aluminum 2024-T3 for you.
 

wktaylor

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Joined
Sep 5, 2003
Messages
438
Location
Midwest USA
Please respond. What is the tube diameter and wall thickness and material specification for Your 2024-T3* material?? This info should be 'mill-marked' [printed] along the length of the tubing [aircraft grades only].

NOTES1.
a. -T3 [current OEM temper designation = -T4 [old temper designation]… but is NOT necessarily = -T42 [which is solution-heat treated, quenched, aged 96-hrs]
b. 'Spring-back' for -T3 material while crush forming is going to be a problem.
c. IF the forming is successful [absolutely no cracks, smooth bend-radii], then AGE-heat treat [bake] to attain -T81 temper [see AMS2770 or MIL-H-6088]… AND will also provide a true 'stress-relief'.
c. There is something VERY odd about this part fabrication... highly NON standard and fraught with these type issues... especially crushed/bent end.
 

tlcasey100

Active Member
Joined
Jan 19, 2011
Messages
32
Location
Hominy, Oklahoma 74035
DO NOT use heat to bend 2024 T3. Heat is never used to bend heat treated aluminum. The heat treat state is critical and and strength goes to hell if you heat it beyond a critical temperature. You need to get a tube bender from McMaster Carr or someplace, or take it to a shop that bends hydraulic tubes.

For the flattened end, don't try to squeeze both surfaces together. You can only squeeze them together until the edges get to the minimum bend radius for that material. Determine what the minimum bend radius is for that thickness of 2024 T3 and make a plate insert of the appropriate thickness, that will form the core of a sandwich as you squeeze it together. When you have it flattened down so it will grip the plate, JB weld (epoxy) the plate in position and after curing drill the hole. The plate is just to keep the installation bolt from crushing the tube.

The squeezing die you make to flatten the tube should have a nice gentle slope and curvature where it forms the transition from flat to round.

Another option is to buy annealed 2024 O tube and have it heat treated after forming. Expensive.

It's odd to be doing that kind of stuff with 2024. Usually one would use 6061 T6 or 5052 which is a little easier to form.
JUST FOR GIGGLES I HAVE TO ADD A PIECE OF 2024 1/4 BY 1 INCH FLAT STOCK IN THE CROTCH OF A ELEVATOR OF MY RAGWING 5. CANYA TELL ME HOW TO DO IT WITH OUT IT CRACKING?
 

Chris.r.Ingram

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Joined
Nov 13, 2021
Messages
93
The solution heat treat process of 2024-O aluminum is to heat to 920 degF +/- 20 deg before a cold water quench.

After the quench, if you can keep it in a deep freeze, it will still remain comparatively soft for a couple of days. This is called 2024 condition W.

Once warmed or left at room temperature, it will be hard in a few of hours. This condition is called 2024 T42 aluminum. It will not quite have the physical properties of 2024 T3 but it is very close. Nearly the same allowables for static stress and fatigue.

If you don't have any 2024-O starting material. You can also do the same thing with 2024-T3. Heat it up to 920 degF before quenching and the condition will revert back to 2024-W and it will age harden back into 2024-T42.


Pops on the forum here, creates an account and throws down this message and then vanishes.
 
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