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Thread: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

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    Registered User Will Aldridge's Avatar
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    Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    The purpose of this thread is to provide quick access to the regulations regarding aircraft certification. In the U.S. FAR 23 has a considerable amount of data regarding the loads and limitations that aircraft should be designed around. For designers this is an invaluable resource. If you are thinking about designing your own plane I can guarantee you that the more experienced members of this forum will sooner or later tell you to look up FAR 23.

    In keeping with the international nature of this forum I will also list links to other countries regs as they are made available to me. If you post a link and don't see this top post modified to include your link please pm me. I do have a life so it might take a day or 2. Once links have been added posts will be deleted to keep things uncluttered.

    Thanks to Jake for making this a sticky and for giving us this great site.

    United States: FAA Regs

    All FAR's

    Regulatory and Guidance Library

    Experimental Amateur Built

    FAR 23 Certification Specifications

    Ultralight Regs

    Part 103

    AC103-7 Determining if part 103 compliant

    Miscellaneous

    AC 90-89A - "Amateur-Built Aircraft and Ultralight Flight Testing Handbook"

    Road regulations

    Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Regulations
    Vehicle Standards and Regulations | Cars and Light Trucks | US EPA
    http://www.dieselnet.com/standards/us/ld_ca.php#leviii

    Europe
    EASA- Certification Specifications
    EASA-General Aviation FAQ

    • CS-23, VSo below 61 kts, IFR possible, max 19 people on board
    • CS-22, VS0 80 km/h without and 90 km/h with water ballast, 750 kg MTOW, 850 for double seaters and engine*
    • CS-VLA, VSo below 45 kts, VFR only, max 2 people on board, MTOW 750 kg, normal category only *
    • CS-LSA, copy of the FAR-LSA regulations. Read more
    • MLA, regulated per country, VSo below 35 kts, 450 kg MTOW with 2 pob, 300 kg when single seat. 25 kg extra MTOW with a BRS.

    *Proposed changes are a raise of the MTOW of gliders to 900 kg and the approval of CS-VLA for night-VFR and a raise of the latter to a MTOW of 890 kg. Relaxation in certifying/allowing aircraft below 1200 KG is expected (ELA1 process)

    Czech Republic

    Czech ultralight airplane requirements UL2-1: http://www.laacr.cz/formular_downloa...FORMULAR_ID=12 (non English site)

    Germany


    German ultralight a/c requirements LTF-UL: http://www.pilots24.com/pilots24/dow...F-UL202003.pdf (non English site)

    United Kingdom

    Experimental Amateur Built

    http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP659.PDF

    HAB thread on topic: Where to start?

    Microlight a/c (450 kg) requirements BCAR-S:

    http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP482.PDF

    Some additional info: BCAR-S interpretation: http://www.bmaa.org/files/til016_1_i..._of_bcar_s.pdf

    BCAR-S and LTF-UL bridging: http://www.bmaa.org/files/til037_2_s..._vs_ltf-ul.pdf
    Last edited by autoreply; January 22nd, 2014 at 12:09 PM. Reason: links provided

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    Re: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP659.PDF
    and
    http://www.homebuiltairplanes.com/fo...html#post88705

    Both for the UK-section


    Regarding the Netherlands:
    wetten.nl - Wet- en regelgeving - BWBR0013494
    CS-23 is limited to a power loading of 267 HP/tonne or less, whether that's @ MTOW or Minimum operating weight isn't specified.

    A small clarification of the different categories might be interesting. CS/FAA-VLA for example isn't that well known and neither are the microlight (below 1000 lbs) EU regulations.

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    Re: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    Might be a good idea to include Part 103 and AC103-7 as specific links in the US section, as they're asked about so frequently. Not strictly "certification", of course, but useful nonetheless, and also consistent since we're doing European microlight regs.

    And although it doesn't strictly belong in this area either, I'd love to find a home on the forums for AC 90-89A - "Amateur-Built Aircraft and Ultralight Flight Testing Handbook".
    "If you have built castles in the air, your work need not be lost; that is where they should be. Now put the foundations under them." - Henry David Thoreau

    Design Project: Conceptual Design of an "Inexpensive" Single-Seat Motorglider
    Discussion Thread for the Project: Discussion: Conceptual Design of an "Inexpensive" Single-Seat Motorglider

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    Re: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    Probably also worth pulling out a link to the Part 23 simplified analysis appendix, with an explanation of what it is. I'd also include a Part 25 link for completeness, with a paragraph of when each applies... because I find that people sometimes refer to Part 25 here without realizing that they should be looking at Part 23 instead.

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    Re: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    And Part 21, while you're at it.
    "If you have built castles in the air, your work need not be lost; that is where they should be. Now put the foundations under them." - Henry David Thoreau

    Design Project: Conceptual Design of an "Inexpensive" Single-Seat Motorglider
    Discussion Thread for the Project: Discussion: Conceptual Design of an "Inexpensive" Single-Seat Motorglider

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    Re: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    Quote Originally Posted by addaon View Post
    Probably also worth pulling out a link to the Part 23 simplified analysis appendix, with an explanation of what it is. I'd also include a Part 25 link for completeness, with a paragraph of when each applies... because I find that people sometimes refer to Part 25 here without realizing that they should be looking at Part 23 instead.
    I was actually thinking of something like this:

    ================================================== ====================

    Europe
    EASA- Certification Specifications
    EASA-General Aviation FAQ

    • CS-23, VSo below 61 kts, IFR possible, max 19 people on board
    • CS-22, VS0 80 km/h without and 90 km/h with water ballast, 750 kg MTOW, 850 for double seaters and engine*
    • CS-VLA, VSo below 45 kts, VFR only, max 2 people on board, MTOW 750 kg, normal category only *
    • CS-LSA, copy of the FAR-LSA regulations. Read more
    • MLA, regulated per country, VSo below 35 kts, 450 kg MTOW with 2 pob, 300 kg when single seat. 25 kg extra MTOW with a BRS.

    *Proposed changes are a raise of the MTOW of gliders to 900 kg and the approval of CS-VLA for night-VFR and a raise of the latter to a MTOW of 890 kg. Relaxation in certifying/allowing aircraft below 1200 KG is expected (ELA1 process)

    ================================================== ====================
    But then for all categories, particularly because there's quite large international differences. Several countries have a 115 kg "ultralight" class, while the ultralights in Europe for example are vastly different and many countries have special categories.
    Last edited by autoreply; January 12th, 2011 at 06:45 PM.

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    Moderator Dana's Avatar
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    Re: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    Here you go:
    Electronic Code of Federal Regulations, Title 13, Aeronautics and Space

    -Dana

    "A designer knows he has achieved perfection not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away." -- Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

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    Re: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    Okay I finally got around to updating this.

    Autoreply I just pasted your revisions in, however the links don't seem to work although it looks to me like it might be the server at the other end or I my really slow connection might be the problem.

    Addaon, could you please right up how you would like your suggestion to look.

    Any other comments appreciated. I hope we are not getting too of topic here with some of the things I have included.

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    Re: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    Good. It saves a lot of pain to be withing the Regs,

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    Re: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    If somebody could post the relevant road vehicle regulations for each country or state (or Europe wide if that is now the case) it would also help with roadable designs -- on the roadable thread would be the appropriate one --in Australia they are called ADR's Australian Design Requirements and are added on to the country of origin design standards. I am only aware of two kit aircraft ever certified to meet FAR 23 ("designed to FAR 23" is a fairly meaningless claim made for some homebuilts but without showing compliance is unreliable at best ) --the Chana et al Honey Bee and the Schweizer 1-26 (with possibly the Helisoar HP 10 as another ) although it was the only option for local(Australian) homebuilt aircraft design until 1999 (with ultralights exempted alone in 1976)

    Overkill in both types of certification is surely shown by the established service histories of so many uncertified vehicles (air and ground)

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    Re: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    Quote Originally Posted by Aircar View Post
    If somebody could post the relevant road vehicle regulations for each country or state (or Europe wide if that is now the case) it would also help with roadable designs -- on the roadable thread would be the appropriate one --in Australia they are called ADR's Australian Design Requirements and are added on to the country of origin design standards. I am only aware of two kit aircraft ever certified to meet FAR 23 ("designed to FAR 23" is a fairly meaningless claim made for some homebuilts but without showing compliance is unreliable at best ) --the Chana et al Honey Bee and the Schweizer 1-26 (with possibly the Helisoar HP 10 as another ) although it was the only option for local(Australian) homebuilt aircraft design until 1999 (with ultralights exempted alone in 1976)

    Overkill in both types of certification is surely shown by the established service histories of so many uncertified vehicles (air and ground)
    Road vehicle regulations depend on whether it is motorcycle ( 3 or less wheels) or car (4 wheels).

    Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Regulations
    Vehicle Standards and Regulations | Cars and Light Trucks | US EPA
    http://www.dieselnet.com/standards/us/ld_ca.php#leviii

    Some counties within States do not require smog testing.

    Note that a steering wheel is required if 4 wheels. There needs to be new regulations made that directly deal with roadables. The crash requirements are not right due to weight differences. Using a steering wheel is not something I want in my car or airplane, but if it has 4 wheels it must have the round thing right where it kills people.

    Holden

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    Re: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    Good work Holden.. It is surprising that ground vehicle regulations are not more standardized in the US --the situation in the EU might be even less on commonality (and the LHS vs RHS driving thing adds more problems except for motorcycles --one more possible reason for a central driver position.

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    Re: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    I would have updated the op to reflect the US DOT stuff but we are nolonger allowed to edit our posts. Mods if you please.

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    Re: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    Done
    Kennis vermenigvuldig je door het te delen.
    (You multiply knowledge by dividing it)

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    Re: Regulations - Aircraft Certification

    Quote Originally Posted by Holden View Post
    There needs to be new regulations made that directly deal with roadables. The crash requirements are not right due to weight differences. Using a steering wheel is not something I want in my car or airplane, but if it has 4 wheels it must have the round thing right where it kills people.

    Holden
    Why? How many light aircraft do you know of that have 4 wheels? Why redesign the plane when you can make a perfectly stable and controllable 3-wheeler that need only conform to the much less restrictive motorcycle rules? If you ask for new rules, you might not like what you get.

    BTW... I vote for two steerable wheels up front and one fixed at the rear.

    Bruce

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